English | Íđ╬─      
 Product Category
Optical Transceivers
RF Optical Transceiver
100G CFP/QSFP28 Module
40G/56G QSFP+ Module
10G SFP+ Module
10G XFP Module
10G XENPARK/X2 Module
150M~4.25G SFP Module
Direct Attached Cables
25G SFP+ /100G QSFP28
6G/12G Mini SAS Cables
Thunderbolt Cables
MPO/MTP Cable Accessories
Fiber Optic Cables
Passive Products
Fiber Channel HBA
PLC Splitters
1000M/10G Media Converter
EOC Device
Technical Support
SONET/SDH Applications--SFP+,XFP,QSFP+ Optical Transceivers
Editor: Tony Chen   Date: 3/16/2015

Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Lower data rates can also be transferred via an electrical interface. The method was developed to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting larger amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber without synchronization problems. SONET generic criteria are detailed in Telcordia Technologies Generic Requirements document GR-253-CORE.Generic criteria applicable to SONET and other transmission systems (e.g., asynchronous fiber optic systems or digital radio systems) are found in Telcordia GR-499-CORE.

SONET and SDH, which are essentially the same, were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications (e.g., DS1, DS3) from a variety of different sources, but they were primarily designed to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM format.The primary difficulty in doing this prior to SONET/SDH was that the synchronization sources of these various circuits were different. This meant that each circuit was actually operating at a slightly different rate and with different phase. SONET/SDH allowed for the simultaneous transport of many different circuits of differing origin within a single framing protocol. SONET/SDH is not itself a communications protocol per se, but a transport protocol.

Due to SONET/SDH's essential protocol neutrality and transport-oriented features, SONET/SDH was the obvious choice for transporting Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) frames. It quickly evolved mapping structures and concatenated payload containers to transport ATM connections. In other words, for ATM (and eventually other protocols such as Ethernet), the internal complex structure previously used to transport circuit-oriented connections was removed and replaced with a large and concatenated frame (such as OC-3c) into which ATM cells, IP packets, or Ethernet frames are placed.

Racks of Alcatel STM-16 SDH add-drop multiplexers

Both SDH and SONET are widely used today: SONET in the United States and Canada, and SDH in the rest of the world. Although the SONET standards were developed before SDH, it is considered a variation of SDH because of SDH's greater worldwide market penetration.

The SDH standard was originally defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and is formalized as International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standards G.707,G.783,G.784,and G.803.The SONET standard was defined by Telcordia and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard T1.105.

Difference from PDH

Synchronous networking differs from Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) in that the exact rates that are used to transport the data on SONET/SDH are tightly synchronized across the entire network, using atomic clocks. This synchronization system allows entire inter-country networks to operate synchronously, greatly reducing the amount of buffering required between elements in the network.

Both SONET and SDH can be used to encapsulate earlier digital transmission standards, such as the PDH standard, or they can be used to directly support either Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or so-called packet over SONET/SDH (POS) networking. As such, it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications protocols in and of themselves; they are generic, all-purpose transport containers for moving both voice and data. The basic format of a SONET/SDH signal allows it to carry many different services in its virtual container (VC), because it is bandwidth-flexible.

Protocol overview

SONET and SDH often use different terms to describe identical features or functions. This can cause confusion and exaggerate their differences. With a few exceptions, SDH can be thought of as a superset of SONET.

The protocol is an extremely heavily-multiplexed structure, with the header interleaved between the data in a complex way. This permits the encapsulated data to have its own frame rate and be able to "float around" relative to the SDH/SONET frame structure and rate. This interleaving permits a very low latency for the encapsulated data. Data passing through equipment can be delayed by at most 32 microseconds (µs), compared to a frame rate of 125 µs; many competing protocols buffer the data during such transits for at least one frame or packet before sending it on. Extra padding is allowed for the multiplexed data to move within the overall framing, as the data is clocked at a different rate than the frame rate. The protocol is made more complex by the decision to permit this padding at most levels of the multiplexing structure, but it improves all-around performance.

SONET/SDH and relationship to 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Another type of high-speed data networking circuit is10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE). The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance created two 10 Gigabit Ethernet variants: a local area variant (LAN PHY) with a line rate of 10.3125 Gbit/s, and a wide area variant (WAN PHY) with the same line rate as OC-192/STM-64 (9,953,280 Kbit/s). The WAN PHY variant encapsulates Ethernet data using a lightweight SDH/SONET frame, so as to be compatible at a low level with equipment designed to carry SDH/SONET signals, whereas the LAN PHY variant encapsulates Ethernet data using 64B/66B line coding.

However, 10 Gigabit Ethernet does not explicitly provide any interoperability at the bitstream level with other SDH/SONET systems. This differs from WDM system transponders, including both coarse and dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems (CWDM and DWDM) that currently support OC-192 SONET signals, which can normally support thin-SONETĘCframed 10 Gigabit Ethernet.

SONET/SDH data rates

SONET/SDH Designations and bandwidths
SONET Optical Carrier Level SONET Frame Format SDH level and Frame Format Payload bandwidth(Kbit/s) Line Rate (Kbit/s)
OC-1 STS-1 STM-0 50,112 51,840
OC-3 STS-3 STM-1 150,336 155,520
OC-12 STS-12 STM-4 601,344 622,080
OC-24 STS-24 ĘC 1,202,688 1,244,160
OC-48 STS-48 STM-16 2,405,376 2,488,320
OC-192 STS-192 STM-64 9,621,504 9,953,280
OC-768 STS-768 STM-256 38,486,016 39,813,120
OC-3072 STS-3072 STM-1024 153,944,064 159,252,480

User throughput must also deduct path overhead from the payload bandwidth, but path-overhead bandwidth is variable based on the types of cross-connects built across the optical system.

Note that the data-rate progression starts at 155 Mbit/s and increases by multiples of four. The only exception is OC-24, which is standardized in ANSI T1.105, but not a SDH standard rate in ITU-T G.707.Other rates, such as OC-9, OC-18, OC-36, OC-96, and OC-1536, are defined but not commonly deployed; most are considered orphaned rates.

Prev: No!
Next: CWDM/DWDM SFP+/XFP+ SR,LR in WDM Systems(wiitek.com)
Print | Close
Copyright Right © 2007-2014 Wiitek.com--Mini SAS,SFP+,XFP,XENPAK,X2,QSFP+,CXP
Address:3F~4F, 4th Block, Masha High-Tech Industrial Area, Pingdi Town, Longgang District,Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China